The Public Security Intelligence Agency was established on July 21, 1952, when the Subversive Activities Prevention Act came into force, an administrative agency to carry out the comprehensive tasks of intelligence activity and investigation and request for control to be imposed on subversive organizations as by the act enacted.
The Act Regarding the Control of Organizations Which Committed Indiscriminate Mass Murder, which was enforced on December 27, 1999, granted the Agency additional duty to conduct intelligence activity and investigation and apply for controlling and regulating those organizations which committed indiscriminate mass murder.
The Subversive Activities Prevention Act provides for necessary control measures against organizations which committed subversive activities by means of acts of violence such as insurrection, disturbance to achieve political purposes and homicide, which pose a serious threat to peaceful citizens’ lives. At the same time, the Act aims to ensure public safety of Japan by such measures as setting a criminal punishment to ensure appropriate penalty against acts falling under subversive activities by means of violence.
When organizations which committed subversive activities by means of violence are considered to have apparent danger of repeating such activities in the future, the Act provides for imposing administrative punishment to restrict those organizations’ activities or implementing a measure to disband them. In addition, when acts constitute subversive activities by means of violence but still cannot be punished under the Penal Code and other statutes or only a light penalty is applicable, the Act makes provision allowing for appropriate punishment.
The Act Regarding the Control of Organizations Which Committed Indiscriminate Mass Murder aims to enhance the public security by revealing the activities of those organizations which have committed indiscriminate mass murder in the past and are still considered to have dangerous nature and by determining control measures against such organizations necessary to prevent the recurrence of the act of indiscriminate mass murder.
The Act provides for surveillance action which requires such organizations to submit reports and receive on-the-spot inspections, for a measure to prevent the recurrence such as banning those organizations from obtaining or using facilities or accepting money and goods as donation, and for appropriate punishment to be imposed on those members who committed prohibited acts or refused on-the-spot inspection.
The Public Security Intelligence Agency is formed with internal departments, an institute and regional bureaus. The internal departments comprise the General Affairs Department, the First Intelligence Department and the Second Intelligence Department. The institute is called the Training Institute, and the Regional Bureaus consist of 8 Public Security Intelligence Bureaus and 14 Public Security Intelligence Offices located nationwide.
Based on the Subversive Activities Prevention Act, the Public Security Intelligence Agency conducts intelligence activity and investigation into those organizations which are likely to commit subversive activities by means of acts of violence. The Agency places a request with the Public Security Examination Commission for the implementation of any measure such as imposing the restriction on such organizations’ activities or disbanding them, when considered to be necessary as a result of the intelligence activity and investigation.
Also, under the Act Regarding the Control of Organizations Which Committed Indiscriminate Mass Murder, the Agency may request the Public Security Examination Commission for the decision to take the surveillance action on those organizations which have committed indiscriminate mass murder in the past and are still considered to have dangerous nature or for the measure to prevent the recurrence. Based on the decision of the surveillance action by the PSEC, the Agency conducts on-the-spot inspections to the facilities that belong to the organization.
As for the implementation of investigations by the public security intelligence officers, it is ruled that such investigations should always be conducted with the consent of the organization in question, not by any compulsory means.
Procedures for the Implementation of Control Measures against Violent Organizations
As the national agency with the role to collect intelligence information, the Public Security Intelligence Agency contributes to government policy by providing relevant organizations with necessary foreign and domestic data (collected through investigations and intelligence activities) on subversive organizations.
The Agency annually releases the “Review and Prospects of Internal and External Situations” which summarizes domestic and international public security situations by the end of each year. The Agency also releases on a regular basis the “Review of International Terrorism” which compiles global terrorism.