1. HOME
  2. Policies
  3. Policies
  4. State Litigation
  5. State Litigation
  6. Overview of Court Proceedings

Overview of Court Proceedings

In civil lawsuits, the party who files a lawsuit with the court is called a “plaintiff”, and the party who is filed against is called a "defendant”.
Administrative lawsuits follow the same court proceedings as civil lawsuits.

Court proceedings begin with plaintiff filing a “complaint” with the court. If the complaint is accepted, the court designates the date of oral arguments and delivers the complaint to the defendant.
By the date of oral arguments, the defendant submits a written response to the court, which admits or denies the facts and claims of the complaint, and alleges other facts or legal matters.

The plaintiff and the defendant contest each other's factual and legal issues in court in the presence of judges by providing evidence.
The court examines the claims of the both sides and, based on the evidence and the law, makes a judgment that either upholds or rejects plaintiff’s claim.
In addition, based on the recommendation from the court, a case may be resolved by "settlement", where the parties negotiate and agree upon an amicable resolution of the dispute.

When the losing party accepts the decision by the court, the judgment is finalized and it will become final. However, if the judgment is contested by either of the parties, a higher court will be asked to make a decision. This process is called an “appeal”.

If the decision of the court is not complied with voluntarily despite the ruling being finalized, those who obtained the favorable judgment will seek compulsory execution (enforcement) of the order by the court (execution court).

The Ministry of Justice

1-1-1 Kasumigaseki,Chiyoda-ku,Tokyo 100-8977,Japan
JCN 1000012030001 (JCN:Japan Corporate Number)

Copyright © The Ministry of Justice All Right Reserved.